Recover files from sdcard and encrypt them

Hey there,
I have a sdcard reader, and several sdcard, both relatively new and a decade old. I don’t know what file system they use (assuming they use different like fat32, ext, etc as some were used more than 10 years ago and some in modern phones).
Now I want to one by one recover all files from them, and then delete them permanently, and then also encrypt the whole sdcards just to be safe.

Can anyone guide me how should I do this? I am using i3 and updated system.

I want to recover files from unknown file systems.
I want to then delete them permanently (purge).
And then I want to encrypt the whole sdcard. Most of them are going to be empty. I will may be put my password manager database in one of them.

Thank you!!